Results

The questionnaires developed in the ASTEE project consist of demographic questions relating to the background of the respondent, questions directly related to entrepreneurial competences as well as questions that have proven to be important for students’ success in their future studies and career. The questions comprise the following dimensions: 

Entrepreneurial knowledge is measured by a single construct, which focuses on the respondent’s perceived knowledge about entrepreneurship. 

Entrepreneurial skills cover both cognitive and non-cognitive skills required in the different phases of an entrepreneurial venture.  A number of constructs are used to capture these skills: Creativity, Planning, Financial literacy, Marshalling of resources, Managing ambiguity, and Teamwork. 

Entrepreneurial mindset is measured by the validated Core Self Evaluation measure, which in three constructs captures the individual’s core sense of being able to perform challenging tasks: General self-efficacy, Locus of control, and Self-esteem.

 

Entrepreneurial intentions and behavior are measured with questions about the student’s connectedness to future career. I.e. questions to their enterprising activities, work experience, preference for intrapreneurial work assignments as well as intentions to start up a company.

Connectedness to education focuses on the student-teacher relationship and is measured by a single construct. 


In the winter and early spring of 2014 a large scale test of the questionnaires was implemented in 13 countries resulting in 4,900 responses. The data were subsequently analysed using a number of statistical tests.

Through the various tests it was demonstrated that the measures are reliable, that the questions provide a good reflection of their intended dimensions and that they are understood in the same way by the respondents regardless of their background. The tests moreover demonstrated that the measures are valid measures of entrepreneurial behaviour.

The ASTEE tools can be used directly by teachers to assess the entrepreneurial competences and learning progress of pupils and students as well as to evaluate different teaching methods. The ASTEE tools should be used at the start and at the end of your educational initiative to assess how different pupils or students respond to your educational content and teaching methods, which you can then adjust accordingly.

The tools can also be used by researchers and policy makers when assessing the effects of different initiatives in entrepreneurship education at different levels of the education system.

You can learn more about the ASTEE tools from the report: "How to assess and evaluate the influence of entrepreneurship education“